This is the first surviving census for Caroline, since both the 1790 and 1800 censuses have been lost. The manuscript is transcribed in its original rough alphabetic form. Caroline was an important county with a heavy slave population, and the census record covers 1154 households. The county's settlement dates from the mid-seventeenth century before the official county formation in 1728, and many of the early families later migrated westward into the Piedmont and Shenandoah Valley area. This document should be a complement to the fine work of Roger Ward (below) on land taxes in the county.